A Regulatory RNA Motifs and Elements Finder
  Release 1.0, Jan 2006

Accession R0007
Feature Type RegRNA in 5'-UTR
Name TGE translational regulation element (TGE)
Regulatory Motif


	ss(minlen=5, maxlen=14)




	ss(minlen=4, maxlen=9)


Description In the nematode C. elegans sex determining gene tra-2 is involved in the specification of hermaphrodite rather that female development. Negative regulation of tra-2 allow development of XX animals as hermaphrodite rather than female. This regulation is in both germ line and soma and it is necessary for normal male development. A regulatory element in the tra-2 3'-UTR, consisting in a 28 nt direct repeat, also termed DRE (Direct Repeat Element), has been found to be necessary for negative regulation of tra-2 allowing the onset of spermatogenesis. Regulation is mediated at translational level, probably by a trans-acting protein factor called DRF (direct Repeat Factor) with binding activity to DRE. DRE consists in two copies of a 28 nt sequence separated by 4 nt. It has been proposed that when no DRF is bound , translation is not inhibited. Binding of a single repeat cause partial regulation, and the binding to both repeats causes full inhibition. No stable secondary structure was predicted for the DREs by computer analysis. Elements functionally equivalent to DREs have been found in the tra-2 gene of the nematode C. Briggsae and in the human oncogene GLI.For this reason DRE has been renamed TGE (tra-2 and GLI elements). Possible mechanisms are that these regulatory elements may control the length of the poly-A tail, which in turn may influence translation. Alternatively, the TGEs may sequester mRNA away from the translation machinery or they can directly inhibit the interaction of initiation factors or of ribosomal subunits with the 5'-UTR.
References Goodwin EB, Okkema PG, Evans TC, and Kimble J
Translational regulation of tra-2 by its 3 untranslated region controls sexual identity in C. elegans.
Cell 1993; 75(2), 329-39   PubMed 

Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Bioinformatics, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Contact with Dr. Hsien-Da Huang